NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS SR-206

ATLANTIC TROPICAL STORMS AND HURRICANES AFFECTING THE UNITED
STATES: 1899-1999

Donovan Landreneau
National Weather Service Office
Lake Charles, Louisiana

1. Introduction

Tropical storms and hurricanes have affected every coastal state along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico from Texas to Maine. Even some inland states, such as Arkansas and Tennessee, have adversely experienced the effects of such storms. Anyone living in the eastern half of the U.S. should be aware of the effects of tropical storms and hurricanes, and how they could affect their lives and businesses.

This study was initiated for the purpose of addressing such concerns and others like them. By using a large part of the work done by Neumann, et al. (1993), several statistics are revealed, including frequency and return period of tropical storms and/or hurricanes which have affected the various coastal and inland states. The distance between landfalls for hurricanes is introduced to show which coastal state has the most concentration of landfalls over time, rather than just looking at which state has the highest number of landfalls.

2. Data Collection

The majority of the information used for this study came from Neumann, et al. (1993). The Atlantic track file (Jarvinen, et al. 1984) was used to complement this publication. Additional data for the years 1993 through 1999, as well as an updated Atlantic track file through 1999, were obtained from the National Hurricane Center Web site. Tropical depressions were excluded from this study due to the absence of data for these weak tropical systems.

Information on coastline length was obtained from Famighetti (1996). During the process of measuring the coastline, Connecticut was eliminated and had no measurement of a coastline. A CD-ROM mapping program, DeLorme (1997), was used to estimate a coastline length for Connecticut.

3. Analysis and Results

Hurricanes are ranked according to strength and by the amount of damage they cause. Table 1 is a brief description of the Saffir/Simpson hurricane intensity scale. The weakest hurricane is designated a Category One with a maximum sustained wind from 74 to 95 mph and an average storm surge of 4 to 5 ft above sea level. In contrast, a Category Five hurricane has a maximum sustained wind greater than 155 mph and a storm surge of greater than 18 ft. Storm depends on many factors such as the shape of the continental shelf just offshore, whether the hurricane makes landfall at high or low tide, and the location of the onshore and offshore winds relative to the eye of the hurricane.

Appendix A is a chronological list of hurricanes of various intensities which have struck from Texas to Maine for the years 1899-1999. In this study, a storm affects a state only once. For example, Hurricane Erin of 1995 made landfall on the east coast of Florida, moved over the peninsula, and struck the Florida panhandle two days later. Such situations are counted once for simplicity since it was the same storm. Table 2 further divides these direct hits according to category using the Saffir/Simpson scale. As one would expect, Category One hurricanes have struck most frequently with 62 landfalls, and Category Five storms are rare with only two landfalls. Notice the secondary maximum of Category Three landfalls.

The Glossary of Meteorology (Huschke 1959) and Elsner and Kara (1999) define frequency as the number of times a specified event occurs in a given series of observations, or period of time. In Table 2, the landfall frequency is represented by dividing the number of storms which made a landfall or direct hit by time. In this case, the time is 101 years. With the exception of the total for the United States, the results for each state are smaller than one, since no state averages a hurricane landfall or direct hit every year. The frequency of 1.65 for the United States signifies an average of one to two hurricane landfalls per year, somewhere along the Gulf or Atlantic coastline.

The above references define return period as the average time interval between the occurrence of a given quantity and that of an equal or greater quantity. This would represent the reciprocal of frequency, or the average number of years between each hurricane landfall. Table 2 shows, for example, that the average number of years between a hurricane landfall for Louisiana is 3.9. In contrast, the average number of years between landfalls in Georgia is 20.2. This gives an idea of the climatological average.

Table 2 also gives information on the coastline length of each state and the distance between each hurricane landfall. We assume storms are, on average, distributed randomly along the coast, and we obtain this figure by dividing the state's coastline length by the number of hurricanes which have affected that state. This value is introduced to show the concentration of landfalling hurricanes for each state. The smaller the number, the smaller the distance between each landfall resulting in a greater concentration of landfalls over time. For example, the total coastline length for Texas is 367 mi. Dividing this figure by the total number of hurricane landfalls, in this case 37, gives the distance between landfalls of 9.9 mi. Alabama, on the other hand, only had 11 hurricane landfalls during this time period. Since its coastline is only 53 mi, the resulting distance between landfalls is 4.8 mi, a higher concentration than Texas. The relative numbers for states should be used with some caution, however, because the assumption of random distribution may not be valid. Portions of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of Florida, for instance, may have significantly different landfall frequencies.

A tropical storm has maximum sustained winds of 39 to 73 mph. In this analysis, a tropical storm is considered to have affected a state if the center of the storm intersected any portion of the state while the storm was at tropical storm intensity. This does not include periphery effects from storms affecting adjacent states or countries. To obtain these data, a very detailed analysis of each track was performed using the yearly track charts (Neumann, et al. 1993) in conjunction with the Atlantic track file (Jarvinen, et al. 1984). The results are shown in Appendix B.

Using the results in Appendix B, Table 3 was constructed to represent the total number of tropical storms which have affected each state, along with the frequency and return period. The methodology for computing frequency and return period is the same as Table 2, except each hit represents a tropical storm passing through any part of the state, and not just a coastal landfall. Table 4 shows the number of landfalling hurricanes and tropical storms which have affected each coastal state, along with the frequency and return period. Once again, the methodology for computing frequency and return period is the same as Tables 2 and 3.

4. Summary

The main purpose for this study is to show which states are more susceptible to tropical storms and hurricanes by using frequency of occurrence and the return period. The distance between landfalling hurricanes was introduced to compare which states have the most concentration of landfalls, or in other words, the smallest average distance between landfalls over the 101-year data span. I emphasize again, however, that the length of a state's coastline plays a significant role in the likelihood of a land-falling storm (i.e., exposure), and a longer coastline decreases the possibility that land-falling storms will strike with equal likelihood along all parts of the coast. The latter is especially true for Florida and Texas (Elsner and Kara 1999).

Over the years, certain cycles and patterns of tropical cyclones affecting coastal states can be observed. Such patterns include periods when most of the storms made landfall along the east coast of the U.S. verses the Gulf coast, during El Niño/La Niña events, etc. Such distinctions were not attempted in this paper, as many NWS offices within the studied area have performed local studies to address these issues. The subject is also well covered in many published papers and texts, see for example Elsner and Kara (1999) and its references.

Results presented in this study represent averages, and are not intended for use as a forecast of when the next tropical storm or hurricane will affect a state. Instead, they may serve as a general tropical cyclone climatology for coastal states as well as some inland states as noted in this analysis.

5. Acknowledgments

The author would like to thank the many authors and editors of the various publications used in this study, especially Neumann, et al. (1993), without which this analysis would have been close to impossible to complete. Many thanks also go to Lee Harrison (MIC) and Ken Falk (SOO) of WFO Shreveport, as well as Steve Rinard (MIC) of WFO Lake Charles for allowing time to complete this project and reviewing the format and content of this paper.

6. References

DeLorme, 1997: Street Atlas USA. Vers. 3.0. CD-ROM Computer Software.

Elsner, James B. and A. Birol Kara, 1999: Hurricanes of the North Atlantic - Climate and Society. Oxford University Press.

Famighetti, Robert, 1996: The World Almanac and Book of Facts. 1997 ed.

Huschke, Ralph E., 1959: Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA.

Jarvinen, Brian R., Charles J. Neumann, and Mary A. S. Davis, 1984: A Tropical Cyclone Data Tape for the North Atlantic Basin, 1886-1983: Contents, Limitations, and Uses. NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS-NHC-22.

Neumann, Charles J., Brian R. Jarvinen, Colin J. McAdie, and Joe D. Elms, 1993: Tropical Cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1871-1992. Historical Climatology Series 6-2, Asheville, North Carolina, National Climatic Data Center.

Table 1. The Saffir/Simpson hurricane scale.

Category Number Maximum Sustained Winds
(miles per hour)
Storm Surge
(feet above normal)
1 74 to 95 4 to 5
2 96 to 110 6 to 8
3 111 to 130 9 to 12
4 131 to 155 13 to 18
5 Greater than 155 Greater than 18

Note: Information for this table was taken from the NOAA publication Tropical Cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1871-1992 (Neumann, et al. 1993).

Table 2. Hurricanes (direct hits) affecting the United States and individual coastal states, 1899- 1999.

Number of Hurricanes:
Saffir/Simpson
Category Number



Landfall frequency
(storms per year)



Return
Period
(years)



Coastline
Length
(in st. mi.)



Distance
Between
Landfalls
(in st. mi.)
Area 1 2 3 4 5 Total
United States:
(TX to ME)
62 39 49 15 2 167 1.65 0.6 3700 22.2
Alabama (AL) 5 1 5 0 0 11 0.11 9.2 53 4.8
Connecticut (CT) 2 3* 3* 0 0 8 0.08 12.6 97+ 12.1
Delaware (DE) 0 0 0 0 0 0 - - 28 -
Florida (FL) 19 17 17 6 1 60 0.59 1.7 1350 22.5
Georgia (GA) 1 4 0 0 0 5 0.05 20.2 100 20.0
Louisiana (LA) 9 5 8 3 1 26 0.26 3.9 397 15.3
Massachusetts (MA) 2 2* 2* 0 0 6 0.06 16.8 192 32.0
Maryland (MD) 0 1* 0 0 0 1* 0.01 101.0 31 31.0
Maine (ME) 5* 0 0 0 0 5* 0.05 20.2 228 45.6
Mississippi (MS) 1 2 5 0 1 9 0.09 11.2 44 4.9
North Carolina (NC) 11 6 11 1* 0 29 0.29 3.5 301 10.8
New Hampshire (NH) 1* 1* 0 0 0 2* 0.02 50.5 13 6.5
New Jersey (NJ) 1* 0 0 0 0 1* 0.01 101.0 130 130.0
New York (NY) 3 1* 5* 0 0 9 0.09 11.2 127 14.1
Rhode Island (RI) 0 2* 3* 0 0 5* 0.05 20.2 40 8.0
South Carolina (SC) 7 4 2 2 0 15 0.15 6.7 187 12.5
Texas (TX) 12 9 10 6 0 37 0.37 2.7 367 9.9
Virginia (VA) 2 1 1* 0 0 4 0.04 25.3 112 28.0

Notes:
Asterisks (*) indicate that all hurricanes in this category were moving in excess of 30 mph. The hurricane (direct hits) portion of this table is taken from the NOAA publication Tropical Cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1871-1992 (Neumann, et al. 1993). Additional data for the years 1993 through 1999 were obtained from the National Hurricane Center's web site using the updated Atlantic track file (Jarvinen, et al. 1984) through 1999.

Coastline lengths were obtained from NOAA/Department of Commerce by using The World Almanac and Book of Facts (Famighetti, 1996). The measurements were made with a unit measure of 30 minutes of latitude on charts with a scale of 1:1,200,000. The coastline of sounds and bays was included to a point where they narrow to the width of unit measure, and included the distance across such a point. The plus sign (+) indicates that this coastline was estimated by using the CD-ROM software package (DeLorme, 1997).

The distance between landfalls was obtained by dividing the area's coastline by the number of hurricanes to affect that area.

Table 3. Tropical storms affecting the individual states, 1899-1999.

Area Total Frequency
(storms per year)
Return Period
(years)
Coastal States:
Alabama (AL) 26 0.26 3.9
Connecticut (CT) 5 0.05 20.2
Delaware (DE) 7 0.07 14.4
Florida (FL) 74 0.73 1.4
Georgia (GA) 45 0.45 2.2
Louisiana (LA) 35 0.35 2.9
Massachusetts (MA) 8 0.08 12.6
Maryland (MD) 15 0.15 6.7
Maine (ME) 11 0.11 9.2
Mississippi (MS) 24 0.24 4.2
North Carolina (NC) 33 0.33 3.1
New Hampshire (NH) 4 0.04 25.3
New Jersey (NJ) 7 0.07 14.4
New York (NY) 11 0.11 9.2
Rhode Island (RI) 0 - -
South Carolina (SC) 24 0.24 4.2
Texas (TX) 32 0.32 3.2
Virginia (VA) 17 0.17 5.9
Inland States:
Arkansas (AR) 7 0.07 14.4
Kansas (KS) 1 0.01 101.0
Kentucky (KY) 4 0.04 25.3
Missouri (MO) 2 0.02 50.5
Ohio (OH) 1 0.01 101.0
Oklahoma (OK) 2 0.02 50.5
Pennsylvania (PA) 10 0.10 10.1
Tennessee (TN) 5 0.05 20.2
Vermont (VT) 1 0.01 101.0
West Virginia (WV) 4 0.04 25.3

Note: In this table, a tropical storm is considered to have affected a state if the center of the storm intersected any portion of the state while the storm was at tropical storm intensity.

Table 4. Total tropical storms and hurricanes affecting the individual coastal states, 1899-1999.

Area

Total

Frequency
(storms per year)

Return Period
(years)

Alabama (AL) 37 0.37 2.7
Connecticut (CT) 13 0.13 7.8
Delaware (DE) 7 0.07 14.4
Florida (FL) 134 1.33 0.8
Georgia (GA) 50 0.50 2.0
Louisiana (LA) 61 0.60 1.7
Massachusetts (MA) 14 0.14 7.2
Maryland (MD) 16 0.16 6.3
Maine (ME) 16 0.16 6.3
Mississippi (MS) 33 0.33 3.1
North Carolina (NC) 62 0.61 1.6
New Hampshire (NH) 6 0.06 16.8
New Jersey (NJ) 8 0.08 12.6
New York (NY) 20 0.20 5.1
Rhode Island (RI) 5 0.05 20.2
South Carolina (SC) 39 0.39 2.6
Texas (TX) 69 0.68 1.5
Virginia (VA) 21 0.21 4.8

Note: The hurricane information used for this table came from the NOAA publication Tropical Cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1871-1992 (Neumann, et al. 1993). Additional data for the years 1993 through 1999 were obtained from the National Hurricane Center's web site using the updated Atlantic track file (Jarvinen, et al. 1984) through 1999.

Appendix A. Chronological listing of all category 1 through 5 hurricanes affecting the individual states, 1899-1999.

Storm
Number



Year


Month


Name
Highest U.S.
Category
States affected with
category by each state
2 1899 AUG - 3 NC 3
6 1899 OCT - 1 SC 1, NC 1
1 1900 SEP - 4 TX 4
3 1901 JUL - 1 NC 1
4 1901 AUG - 2 LA 2, MS 2
3 1903 SEP - 2 FL 2
4 1903 SEP - 1 NJ 1, NY 1, CT 1
2 1904 SEP - 1 SC 1
2 1906 JUN - 1 FL 1
4 1906 SEP - 3 SC 3, NC 3
5 1906 SEP - 3 MS 3, AL 3
8 1906 OCT - 2 FL 2
2 1908 JUL - 1 NC 1
3 1909 JUL - 3 TX 3
5 1909 AUG - 2 TX 2
7 1909 SEP - 4 LA 4
9 1909 OCT - 3 FL 3
2 1910 SEP - 2 TX 2
4 1910 OCT - 3 FL 3
1 1911 AUG - 1 FL 1, AL 1
2 1911 AUG - 2 GA 2, SC 2
3 1912 SEP - 1 AL 1
5 1912 OCT - 1 TX 1
1 1913 JUN - 1 TX 1
2 1913 SEP - 1 NC 1
2 1915 AUG - 4 TX 4
4 1915 SEP - 1 FL 1
5 1915 SEP - 4 LA 4
1 1916 JUL - 3 MS 3, AL 3
2 1916 JUL - 1 MA 1
3 1916 JUL - 1 SC 1
4 1916 AUG - 3 TX 3
13 1916 OCT - 2 AL 2, FL 2
14 1916 NOV - 1 FL 1
3 1917 SEP - 3 FL 3
1 1918 AUG - 3 LA 3
2 1919 SEP - 4 FL 4, TX 4
2 1920 SEP - 2 LA 2
3 1920 SEP - 1 NC 1
1 1921 JUN - 2 TX 2
6 1921 OCT - 3 FL 3
3 1923 OCT - 1 LA 1
4 1924 SEP - 1 FL 1
7 1924 OCT - 1 FL 1
2 1925 NOV - 1 FL 1
1 1926 JUL - 2 FL 2
3 1926 AUG - 3 LA 3
6 1926 SEP - 4 FL 4, AL 3
1 1928 AUG - 2 FL 2
4 1928 SEP - 4 FL 4, GA 1, SC 1
1 1929 JUN - 1 TX 1
2 1929 SEP - 3 FL 3
2 1932 AUG - 4 TX 4
3 1932 SEP - 1 AL 1
5 1933 JUL/AUG - 2 FL 1, TX 2
8 1933 AUG - 2 NC 2, VA 2
11 1933 SEP - 3 TX 3
12 1933 SEP - 3 FL 3
13 1933 SEP - 3 NC 3
2 1934 JUN - 3 LA 3
3 1934 JUL - 2 TX 2
2 1935 SEP - 5 FL 5
6 1935 NOV - 2 FL 2
3 1936 JUN - 1 TX 1
5 1936 JUL - 3 FL 3
13 1936 SEP - 2 NC 2
2 1938 AUG - 1 LA 1
4 1938 SEP - 3* NY 3*, CT 3*, RI 3*, MA 3*
2 1939 AUG - 1 FL 1
2 1940 AUG - 2 TX 2, LA 2
3 1940 AUG - 2 GA 2, SC 2
2 1941 SEP - 3 TX 3
5 1941 OCT - 2 FL 2
1 1942 AUG - 1 TX 1
2 1942 AUG - 3 TX 3
1 1943 JUL - 2 TX 2
3 1944 AUG - 1 NC 1
7 1944 SEP - 3* NC 3*, VA 3*, NY 3*, CT 3*, RI 3*, MA 2*
11 1944 OCT - 3 FL 3
1 1945 JUN - 1 FL 1
5 1945 AUG - 2 TX 2
9 1945 SEP - 3 FL 3
5 1946 OCT - 1 FL 1
3 1947 AUG - 1 TX 1
4 1947 SEP - 4 FL 4, LA 3, MS 3
8 1947 OCT - 2 FL 1, GA 2, SC 2
5 1948 SEP - 1 LA 1
7 1948 SEP - 3 FL 3
8 1948 OCT - 2 FL 2
1 1949 AUG - 1 NC 1
2 1949 AUG - 3 FL 3
10 1949 OCT - 2 TX 2
2 1950 AUG Baker 1 AL 1
5 1950 SEP Easy 3 FL 3
11 1950 OCT King 3 FL 3
2 1952 AUG Able 1 SC 1
2 1953 AUG Barbara 1 NC 1
4 1953 SEP Carol 1* ME 1*
8 1953 SEP Florence 1 FL 1
3 1954 AUG Carol 3* NC 2, NY 3*, CT 3*, RI 3*
5 1954 SEP Edna 3* MA 3*, ME 1*
9 1954 OCT Hazel 4* SC 4*, NC 4*, MD 2*
2 1955 AUG Connie 3 NC 3, VA 1
3 1955 AUG Diane 1 NC 1
9 1955 SEP Ione 3 NC 3
7 1956 SEP Flossy 2 LA 2, FL 1
2 1957 JUN Audrey 4 TX 4, LA 4
4 1959 JUL Cindy 1 SC 1
5 1959 JUL Debra 1 TX 1
8 1959 SEP Gracie 3 SC 3
5 1960 SEP Donna 4 FL 4, NC 3*, NY 3*, CT 2*, RI 2*, MA 1*,

NH 1*, ME 1*

6 1960 SEP Ethel 1 MS 1
3 1961 SEP Carla 4 TX 4
4 1963 SEP Cindy 1 TX 1
5 1964 AUG Cleo 2 FL 2
6 1964 SEP Dora 2 FL 2
10 1964 OCT Hilda 3 LA 3
11 1964 OCT Isbell 2 FL 2
3 1965 SEP Betsy 3 FL 3, LA 3
1 1966 JUN Alma 2 FL 2
9 1966 OCT Inez 1 FL 1
2 1967 SEP Beulah 3 TX 3
8 1968 OCT Gladys 2 FL 2
3 1969 AUG Camille 5 LA 5, MS 5
7 1969 SEP Gerda 1 ME 1*
3 1970 AUG Celia 3 TX 3
6 1971 SEP Edith 2 LA 2
7 1971 SEP Fern 1 TX 1
8 1971 SEP Ginger 1 NC 1
2 1972 JUN Agnes 1 FL 1, NY 1, CT 1
6 1974 SEP Carmen 3 LA 3
5 1975 SEP Eloise 3 FL 3
3 1976 AUG Belle 1 NY 1
2 1977 SEP Babe 1 LA 2
2 1979 JUL Bob 1 LA 1
4 1979 SEP David 2 FL 2, GA 2, SC 2
6 1979 SEP Frederic 3 AL 3, MS 3
1 1980 AUG Allen 3 TX 3
1 1983 AUG Alicia 3 TX 3
5 1984 SEP Diana 3 NC 3
2 1985 JUL Bob 1 SC 1
4 1985 AUG Danny 1 LA 1
5 1985 SEP Elena 3 AL 3, MS 3
7 1985 SEP Gloria 3 NC 3, NY 3*, CT 2*, NH 2*, ME 1*
10 1985 OCT Juan 1 LA 1
11 1985 NOV Kate 2 FL 2
2 1986 JUN Bonnie 1 TX 1
3 1986 AUG Charley 1 NC 1, VA 1
7 1987 OCT Floyd 1 FL 1
6 1988 SEP Florence 1 LA 1
3 1989 AUG Chantal 1 TX 1
8 1989 SEP Hugo 4 SC 4
10 1989 OCT Jerry 1 TX 1
2 1991 AUG Bob 2 RI 2, MA 2, NY 2, CT 2
2 1992 AUG Andrew 4 FL 4, LA 3
5 1993 AUG Emily 3 NC 3
5 1995 AUG Erin 2 FL 2
15 1995 OCT Opal 3 FL 3
2 1996 JUL Bertha 2 NC 2
6 1996 SEP Fran 3 NC 3
4 1997 JUL Danny 1 LA 1, AL 1
2 1998 AUG Bonnie 2 NC 2
5 1998 SEP Earl 1 FL 1
7 1998 SEP Georges 2 FL 2, MS 2
2 1999 AUG Bret 3 TX 3
6 1999 SEP Floyd 2 NC 2
9 1999 OCT Irene 1 FL 1

Notes: Asterisks (*) indicate that all hurricanes in this category were moving in excess of 30 mph. The state abbreviations legend can be found in table 2. The information used for this appendix came from table 6 of the NOAA publication Tropical Cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1871-1992 (Neumann, et al. 1993). Additional data for the years 1993 through 1999 were obtained from the National Hurricane Center's web site using the updated Atlantic track file (Jarvinen, et al. 1984) through 1999.

Appendix B. Chronological listing of tropical storms affecting the individual states, 1899-1999.



Storm
Number



Year


Month


Name
Highest U.S.
Category
(at hurricane stage)





States affected
1 1899 AUG - FL
5 1899 OCT - FL
1 1900 SEP - 4 KS, MO, OK
3 1900 SEP - AL, LA, MS
6 1900 OCT - FL
1 1901 JUN - AL
2 1901 JUL - TX
3 1901 JUL - 1 SC
4 1901 AUG - 2 FL
6 1901 SEP - AL, FL, GA
8 1901 SEP - FL, GA
1 1902 JUN - FL, GA, SC
2 1902 JUN - TX
4 1902 OCT - AL, LA, MS
3 1903 SEP - 2 AL, GA
4 1903 SEP - 1 PA
2 1904 SEP - 1 NC
3 1904 OCT - FL
5 1904 NOV - AL, GA, LA, MS, SC
3 1905 SEP - LA, MS, AR
5 1905 OCT - LA
1 1906 JUN - AL, FL
5 1906 SEP - 3 AR, MO
9 1906 OCT - FL
1 1907 JUN - FL, GA
2 1907 SEP - AL, LA, MS
3 1907 SEP - FL, GA, SC
8 1908 OCT - SC
1 1909 JUN - TX
2 1909 JUN - FL
6 1909 AUG - FL
7 1909 SEP - 4 MS, AR
8 1909 SEP - FL
4 1910 OCT - 3 GA, NC, SC
1 1911 AUG - 1 MS
1 1912 JUN - AL, GA, LA, MS, NC, SC
2 1912 JUL - GA
3 1912 SEP - 1 MS
4 1913 OCT - SC
1 1914 SEP - AL, FL, GA, LA
1 1915 AUG - FL, GA, SC
4 1915 SEP - 1 AL, GA
5 1915 SEP - 4 MS
2 1916 JUL - 1 ME
3 1916 JUL - 1 NC
7 1916 SEP - NC
8 1916 SEP - FL
13 1916 OCT - 2 KY, TN
3 1917 SEP - 3 AL
1 1918 AUG - 3 TX
3 1918 AUG - NC
1 1919 JUL - AL, FL
2 1920 SEP - 2 AR
4 1920 SEP - FL
1 1921 JUN - 2 OK
3 1922 OCT - AL
3 1923 OCT - 1 MS, AR
5 1923 OCT - MA
6 1923 OCT - MS
4 1924 SEP - 1 GA
1 1925 SEP - TX
2 1925 DEC - 1 NC
1 1926 JUL - 2 GA
6 1926 SEP - 4 LA, MS
5 1927 OCT - GA, SC, NC
1 1928 AUG - 2 GA
2 1928 AUG - AL, FL
4 1928 SEP - 4 MD, NC, VA, PA
2 1929 SEP/OCT - 3 GA
2 1930 SEP - FL
1 1931 JUN - TX
2 1931 JUL - LA
3 1932 SEP - 1 FL, MS
5 1932 SEP - FL
6 1932 SEP - LA
8 1932 OCT - LA, MS
4 1933 JUL - TX
6 1933 AUG - FL
8 1933 AUG - 2 MD, NY, PA
12 1933 SEP - 3 GA
1 1934 MAY - FL, SC
2 1934 JUN - 3 MS, KY, TN, WV
3 1934 JUL - 2 FL
9 1934 OCT - AL
2 1935 SEP - 5 GA, NC, SC, VA
1 1936 JUN - FL
4 1936 JUL - LA
9 1936 AUG - FL
1 1937 JUL - FL
3 1937 AUG - FL
6 1937 SEP - FL
9 1937 OCT - LA
2 1938 AUG - TX
5 1938 OCT - TX
7 1938 OCT - FL, GA
1 1939 JUN - AL
3 1939 SEP - LA
2 1940 AUG - 2 FL
3 1940 AUG - 2 KY, TN
6 1940 SEP - LA
1 1941 SEP - TX
2 1941 SEP - 3 LA, AR
5 1941 OCT - 2 GA, SC
6 1941 OCT - FL
8 1942 OCT - NC
6 1943 SEP - LA
7 1943 SEP/OCT - DE, MD
3 1944 AUG - 1 DE, MD, NJ, VA
6 1944 SEP - LA, MS
7 1944 SEP - 3 ME
11 1944 OCT - 3 NC, SC
1 1945 JUN - 1 NC
7 1945 SEP - FL
9 1945 SEP - 3 GA, NC, SC, VA
1 1946 JUN - LA, TX
2 1946 JUL - NC
5 1946 OCT - 1 GA, NC, SC
6 1946 NOV - FL
1 1947 AUG - TX
4 1947 SEP - 4 TX
5 1947 SEP - AL, MS
6 1947 SEP - FL, GA
7 1947 OCT - FL, GA
2 1948 JUL - FL
5 1948 SEP - 1 MS
2 1949 AUG - 3 GA, MD, NC, NY, SC, VA, PA, VT
5 1949 SEP - LA, MS
10 1949 OCT - 2 LA, AR
2 1950 AUG Baker 1 FL
5 1950 SEP Easy 3 GA
11 1950 OCT King 3 GA
13 1950 OCT Love FL
8 1951 OCT How FL
1 1952 FEB - FL
2 1952 AUG/SEP Able 1 MD, NC, VA, PA
1 1953 JUN Alice FL
3 1953 AUG/SEP - FL, GA
7 1953 SEP - FL
12 1953 OCT Hazel FL
2 1954 JUL Barbara LA
1 1955 AUG Brenda LA
2 1955 AUG Connie 3 MD, PA
3 1955 AUG Diane 1 MD, NJ, NY, VA, PA
5 1955 AUG - LA, TX
1 1956 JUN - LA
7 1956 SEP Flossy 2 GA
1 1957 JUN - FL, GA, SC
3 1957 AUG Bertha LA, TX
5 1957 SEP Debbie FL
6 1957 SEP Esther LA
5 1958 SEP Ella TX
1 1959 MAY Arlene LA
8 1959 SEP Gracie NC
10 1959 OCT Irene AL, FL
11 1959 OCT Judith FL
1 1960 JUN - TX
3 1960 JUL Brenda CT, DE, GA, MA, MD, ME, NC, NH, NJ, NY, SC, VA
5 1961 SEP Esther MA, ME
6 1961 SEP - DE, MA, MD, ME, NC, NH, NJ, NY, VA
1 1962 AUG Alma NC
3 1964 AUG Abby TX
5 1964 AUG Cleo 2 GA
6 1964 SEP Dora 2 GA, NC, SC
1 1965 JUN - FL, GA
1 1966 JUN Alma 2 GA
4 1967 SEP Dora NC
1 1968 JUN Abby FL, GA
3 1968 JUN Candy TX
13 1969 OCT Jenny FL
2 1970 JUL Becky FL
7 1970 SEP Felice TX
5 1971 AUG Doria CT, DE, MA, MD, ME, NC, NH, NJ, NY
6 1971 SEP Edith 2 MS
9 1971 SEP Heidi ME
2 1972 JUN Agnes 1 NC
5 1973 SEP Delia TX
5 1975 SEP Eloise 3 AL, GA, TN
3 1976 AUG Belle 1 CT, MA, ME, NH
5 1976 AUG Dottie FL, SC
2 1978 JUL Amelia TX
5 1978 AUG Debra LA
2 1979 JUL Bob 1 MS
3 1979 JUL Claudette LA, TX
4 1979 SEP David 2 MD, NC, NY, VA, PA, WV
5 1979 SEP Elena TX
6 1979 SEP Frederic 3 NY, KY, PA, TN, WV
4 1980 SEP Danielle TX
2 1981 JUN/JUL Bret VA
4 1981 AUG Dennis FL, NC, SC
4 1982 SEP Chris LA, TX
2 1983 AUG Barry FL
4 1983 SEP Dean VA
10 1984 SEP Isidore FL
2 1985 JUL Bob 1 FL, NC
5 1985 SEP Elena 3 LA
8 1985 SEP Henri NY
9 1985 OCT Isabel FL, GA
10 1985 OCT/NOV Juan AL, FL
11 1985 NOV Kate 1 GA, NC, SC
1 1987 AUG - 2 TX
2 1988 AUG Beryl LA
3 1988 AUG Chris GA, SC
12 1988 NOV Keith FL
1 1989 JUN Allison TX
8 1989 SEP Hugo 4 NC, VA, OH, WV
13 1990 OCT Marco FL
2 1991 AUG Bob 2 ME
2 1992 AUG Andrew 4 MS
5 1992 SEP Danielle DE, MD, VA, PA
1 1993 JUN Arlene TX
1 1994 JUL Alberto AL, FL
2 1994 AUG Beryl AL, FL, GA
7 1994 NOV Gordon FL
1 1995 JUN Allison FL, GA
4 1995 JUL Dean TX
5 1995 AUG Erin 2 AL, MS
10 1995 AUG Jerry FL
15 1995 OCT Opal 3 AL
1 1996 JUN Arthur NC
2 1996 JUL Bertha 2 CT, DE, MA, MD, ME, NJ, NY, VA
6 1996 SEP Fran 3 VA
10 1996 OCT Josephine FL
4 1997 JUL Danny 1 FL
3 1998 AUG Charley TX
5 1998 SEP Earl 1 GA
6 1998 SEP Frances TX
7 1998 SEP Georges 2 AL
8 1998 SEP Hermine LA
13 1998 NOV Mitch FL
4 1999 SEP Dennis NC
6 1999 SEP Floyd 2 CT, MA, MD, ME, NJ, NY, VA
8 1999 SEP Harvey FL

Notes: In this table, a tropical storm is considered to have affected a state if the center of the storm intersected any portion of the state while the storm was at tropical storm intensity. The hurricane (highest U.S. category) portion of this table is taken from the NOAA publication Tropical Cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1871-1992 (Neumann, et al. 1993). Additional data for the years 1993 through 1998 were obtained from the National Hurricane Center's web site using the updated Atlantic track file (Jarvinen, et al. 1984) through 1999.