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Highway
Overpasses

Highway Overpasses as Tornado Shelters:
Fallout From the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma/Kansas
Violent Tornado Outbreak

This web page links to slides from a talk that was originally presented at the 24th annual meeting of the National Weather Association. The meeting was held at the Capri Crown Plaza Resort in Biloxi, MS from October 15-22, 1999. The presenter was Dan Miller, the lead author and former forecaster at the National Weather Service Forecast Office in Norman, OK.

Slide 1 Introduction and Abstract
Slide 2 Associated Press Photo
Slide 3 A Brief History
Slide 4 Schematic of the Kansas Turnpike Video from 4/26/1991
Slide 5 Events in Oklahoma on 3 May 1999
Slide 6 Meteorological Reasons Why Highway Overpasses Are Inadequate Tornado Sheltering Areas
Slide 7 16th Street Overpass – Newcastle, Oklahoma
Slide 8 Shields Boulevard Overpass - Moore Part I
Slide 9 Shields Boulevard Overpass - Moore Part II
Slide 10 The Crescent/Mulhall/Perry Tornado
Slide 11 A Tornado and an Overpass - What is Reality?
Slide 12 Misconception of Tornadic Winds - Part I
Slide 13 Misconception of Tornadic Winds - Part II
Slide 14 A More Realistic Conception of Tornadic Winds - Part I
Slide 15 A More Realistic Conception of Tornadic Winds - Part II
Slide 16 Other Severe Weather Threats in Addition to Tornadoes
Slide 17 Examples of Other Severe Weather Threats - Gainesville TX – 26 April 1994 and Jarrell TX – 27 May 1997
Slide 18 Examples of Other Severe Weather Threats - Lancaster TX – 25 April 1994
Slide 19 Examples of Other Severe Weather Threats - Minneapolis/St. Paul Hail/Windstorm and Flash Flood – 1 July 1997
Slide 20 How Can Meteorologists Assist in Solving This Problem?
Slide 21 Current Safety Guidelines for Well Constructed Buildings are Extremely Effective
Slide 22 Close Examination of the Current Open-Country Safety Guidelines
Slide 23 Non-Meteorological Reasons Why Highway Overpasses Are Dangerous Severe Storm and Tornado Sheltering Areas
Slide 24 How Do We Minimize the Use of Overpasses as Sheltering Areas?
Slide 25 Acknowledgments

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