Guide for Severe Weather Preparedness in Schools
Warning Coordination Meteorologist
National Weather Service - Memphis / MidSouth
Severe weather preparedness is essential for ALL schools and should be taken seriously.
These guidelines were developed for school administrators and Emergency Management personnel to help develop a preparedness plan that fits their specific scenario. There are a few "disclaimers" that should be noted up front:
A unique plan should be developed for your school using these guidelines in conjunction with your experience and local considerations.
If there is one phrase that works in nearly all scenarios, it is, "Put as many walls between you and the storm as possible."
Before the Storm (Prepare / Practice)
Probably the most important part in this process is being ready BEFORE severe weather strikes. Be proactive and take it seriously.
1) Educate Yourself
Preparedness is easier when you understand the possible threat(s) and "lingo" used in the business. Do you know what a "WATCH" or "WARNING" are? Educate yourself on severe weather and how the warning process works. This will help you understand the range of possibilities and limitations you have to plan for.
Hazardous Weather Outlooks (HWO) are available from the National Weather Service (NWS) that can alert you of expected hazards out through 7 days. Outlooks are available in both graphical and text format.
2) Develop and Action Plan
If you currently do not have severe weather action plan for your school, this will be a large part of your preparedness work. In fact, this entire document could be considered parts of the plan. Your local or county Emergency Management director or the National Weather Service (NWS) can assist in this process and provide guidance. Read the "disclaimers" listed in the introduction section again. The plan for your school will have be tailored to your particular set up.
Physical Layout of School/Buildings - Closely examine the layout of your structure. You'll need to determine your designated shelter areas. Use a map of the school and physically tour the building(s) with your top school officials. You may also want to invite local fire department personnel. Emergency Management, or a member of the NWS to assist. Ideally students should be moved to the lowest level(s) possible, to interior rooms away from exterior walls and windows that may certainly fail in the event of a tornado or strong, damaging winds.
Notification - Develop a method to notify everyone to seek shelter. It could be a speaker system, special tone, or bell, but ensure you have a backup method (air horn or megaphone) in case you lose electricity. Also ensure every one clearly knows what the notification signal is. Make sure the shelters are clearly marked as such, with arrows directing people to the "safer" areas.
School Bus Considerations - Include in your plan what bus drivers should do while at the school or during transportation.
3) Practice and Review Your Action Plain
You should practice and review you severe weather action plan relatively often. If your plan is new, a few practice run-throughs are suggested in case you need to revise shelter choice before finalizing it. A practice will not only help confirm the validity of your plan and illustrate any deficiencies to be addressed, but can educate your students and staff on proper responses during severe weather.
Your plan should be reviewed at least annually and anytime changes are made to the physical building, shelters, or classroom sizes. A good chance to practice is during the annual statewide Tornado Drills held each year in late February to mid-March. A drill in late September or October should also be considered due to a second peak severe weather season that occurs in the fall across the MidSouth.
Inform parents of your action plan which might involve students remaining or delayed at school beyond regular hours if severe weather is threatening.
4) Source of Weather Information
Another key in being prepared is having a good and dependable source of weather information. Even the best action plan is no good if incoming severe weather or related warnings are not monitored.
Whether you use commercial radio, television, private service, a community outdoor siren, or the Internet, you should have a NOAA Weather Radio as a direct source of watches and warnings directly from the National Weather Service. A weather radio continuously monitors the issuance of these types of alerts and can give you advance notice allowing you time to plan or activate your action plan. A desktop model can be placed in a central office allowing full monitoring by administrative staff. A weather radio also has a battery back-up in case of power loss. Be sure to educate your staff on what to listen for when the radio activates its alert tones. (A weather radio can also be used during the winter months to monitor wind chill conditions during extreme cold.) A Department of Homeland Security program recently provided weather radios to numerous schools across the country. Check this web site for additional information.
Make sure the weather radio or other source of weather information is available even during non-routine school activities. In the past, tornadoes have struck during after school hours when team sports were holding practice, but they didn’t hear the warning because the weather radio was locked in the office.
Like other aspects of proper preparation, a pro-active approach is needed when monitoring local weather conditions. Although warning lead times are increasing by the National Weather Service, you should not assume you will always receive a warning or "heads up" of threatening weather. If you spot a tornado or severe weather approaching, you should follow your action plans even if a warning is not heard. Consider attending a SKYWARN severe weather spotter training class or designate staff members as spotters around your school. Bus drivers can benefit from this type of training as well so they can learn basic cloud formations that may be pre-cursors of impending severe weather. Spotter training is held in February and March in the spring and September and October in the fall each year.
5) Other Preparation Ideas
During the Storm (Act)
1) Monitor Weather Conditions
Use your source of weather information to keep abreast of approaching storms, their severity, and reported severe weather. A NOAA Weather Radio will alert you if any watches or warnings are in effect or issued for your area. If a WATCH is issued, pay special attention to changing weather conditions and be ready to take action if a WARNING is issued or severe weather strikes.
If your school has a designated storm spotter, have them be in position. Short range radios might be a good idea for communication between the spotter(s) and school administrator or office.
If amateur radio operators or fire department personnel do storm spotting in your community, their radio traffic can be monitored via a scanner. That may be another option for real-time storm conditions.
Respect all warnings and assume severe weather will strike your area. Be safe instead of sorry by treating all weather threats seriously. Understand that you will have false alarms but that is far better than not being ready when your facility is struck.
Use your action plan by ensuring:
If time allows, take note of problems that develop while the plan is being used.
Do not go near windows if severe weather is striking. Do not try to open windows or doors to equalize pressure. The pressure difference in a storm is not what damages buildings - it is the strong wind and flying debris associated with the storm or tornado that will cause damage and could explode glass or exterior walls.
Continue to monitor weather conditions until you are sure thunderstorms have passed or the cancellations of warnings has been given.
School Bus Considerations -
After the Storm (Review)
1) Damage Assessment
Once you are confident the storm has passed, assess the building(s) for damage before releasing people from their shelters. Exterior areas, including playgrounds, should also be checked. Obviously if damage is noted, you may need to keep people in shelters or relocate them to safer areas.
2) All Clear
Announce an "all clear" message or use pre-determined signals to alert sheltered students or staff that it is safe to return to their rooms.
3) Post Mortem Review
After every use, consider conducting a post mortem review of your severe weather action plan and the actions your facility did during the weather event. What worked well? What can be improved? What problems were noted? Meet with your staff and review each action item. Adjust or append your plan as needed, just as you would after the spring drill or other practices. Additional reference or guidance may be available via your county Emergency Management director or the NWS.