ZCZC LITWRKPNS
TTAA00 KLIT 160344
ARZ003>007-012>016-021>025-030>034-037>047-052>057-062>069-212000-

PUBLIC INFORMATION STATEMENT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE LITTLE ROCK AR
600 AM CST FRI NOV 21 2014

...THE COLD OF WINTER...

NOVEMBER 17TH THROUGH 21ST IS WINTER WEATHER AWARENESS WEEK IN
ARKANSAS. PEOPLE ARE ASKED TO TAKE SOME TIME AND PREPARE FOR THE 
UPCOMING WINTER SEASON.

TODAYS TOPIC IS THE COLD OF WINTER.

WHEN ARKANSANS THINK OF WINTER WEATHER...USUALLY A PICTURE OF
FALLING SNOW AND TEMPERATURES IN THE 20S AND LOWER 30S COMES TO MIND.
HOWEVER...WINTER WEATHER CAN BE NOT ONLY DANGEROUS...BUT POSSIBLY
DEADLY IN SOME CASES.

WINTER STORMS ARE CONSIDERED DECEPTIVE KILLERS BECAUSE MOST DEATHS
ARE INDIRECTLY RELATED TO THE STORM ITSELF. TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS ON
ICY ROADS ACCOUNT FOR A VAST MAJORITY OF DEATHS. HEART ATTACKS CAUSED
BY PEOPLE SHOVELING SNOW AND HYPOTHERMIA FROM PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO
THE COLD ARE ALSO CONSEQUENCES OF SEVERE WINTER WEATHER.

AN IMPORTANT FACTOR THIS WINTER WILL BE ENERGY COSTS. PRICES FOR
NATURAL GAS AND PROPANE COULD CAUSE SOME PEOPLE TO HEAT THEIR
HOMES INADEQUATELY IN AN EFFORT TO AVOID LARGE ENERGY BILLS.
IF TOO LITTLE HEAT IS USED...HYPOTHERMIA WILL BECOME A GREATER 
THREAT THAN USUAL. 

IN CASE OF POWER OUTAGES...GASOLINE OR DIESEL POWERED GENERATORS 
MUST NOT BE USED INDOORS. CARBON MONOXIDE...A COLORLESS AND ODORLESS
GAS...CAN BUILD UP IN ENCLOSED AREAS SUCH AS HOUSES AND GARAGES AND
RESULT IN DEATH. 

FROSTBITE...
FROSTBITE IS DAMAGE TO BODY TISSUE CAUSED BY THAT TISSUE BEING
FROZEN. IT CAUSES A LOSS OF FEELING AND A WHITE OR PALE APPEARANCE
IN EXTREMITIES...SUCH AS FINGERS...TOES...EARLOBES OR THE TIP OF THE
NOSE. IF SYMPTOMS ARE DETECTED...GET MEDICAL HELP IMMEDIATELY. IF YOU
MUST WAIT FOR HELP...BEGIN TO TREAT THE AFFECTED AREA BY WARMING IT
SLOWLY.

WIND CHILL...
WIND CHILL IS BASED ON THE RATE OF HEAT LOSS FROM EXPOSED SKIN CAUSED
BY THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF WIND AND COLD. AS THE WIND INCREASES...
HEAT IS CARRIED AWAY FROM THE BODY...DRIVING DOWN THE BODY
TEMPERATURE. REMEMBER THAT ANIMALS ARE AFFECTED BY WIND CHILL AS 
WELL.

                     W I N D    C H I L L    C H A R T
--------------------------------------------------------------------
:WIND:                       TEMPERATURE                           :
--------------------------------------------------------------------
:CALM: 35   30   25   20   15   10    5     0   -5  -10   -15   -20:
:  5 : 31   25   19   13    7    1   -5   -11  -16  -22   -28   -34:
: 10 : 27   21   15    9    3   -4  -10   -16  -22  -28   -35   -41:
: 15 : 25   19   13    6    0   -7  -13   -19  -26  -32   -39   -45:
: 20 : 24   17   11    4   -2   -9  -15   -22  -29  -35   -42   -48:
: 25 : 23   16    9    3   -4  -11  -17   -24  -31  -37   -44   -51:
: 30 : 22   15    8    1   -5  -12  -19   -26  -33  -39   -46   -53:
: 35 : 21   14    7    0   -7  -14  -21   -27  -34  -41   -48   -55:
---------------------------------------------------------------------

THE WIND SPEED USED IN THE WIND CHILL FORMULA IS CALCULATED FOR THE 
AVERAGE HEIGHT OF THE HUMAN FACE...OR ABOUT 5 FEET ABOVE THE GROUND. 
IN CONTRAST...WIND IN MOST WEATHER OBSERVATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES 
IS MEASURED ABOUT 33 FEET ABOVE THE GROUND. THE FORMULA ALSO USES 
UPDATED HEAT TRANSFER THEORY...WHICH FACTORS HEAT LOSS FROM THE BODY 
TO ITS SURROUNDINGS DURING COLD AND WINDY CONDITIONS. IN ARRIVING AT 
THE FORMULA...TESTING WAS ACTUALLY DONE ON PEOPLE IN A CHILLED WIND 
TUNNEL. SENSORS ATTACHED TO THE PEOPLE MEASURED HEAT LOSS FROM THEIR 
BODIES.

AT A WIND CHILL OF 18 DEGREES BELOW ZERO...FROSTBITE CAN DEVELOP ON
EXPOSED SKIN WITHIN 30 MINUTES.

AN IMPORTANT THING TO REMEMBER ABOUT WIND CHILL IS THAT IT WAS
DESIGNED TO APPLY TO LIVING BEINGS ONLY. FOR EXAMPLE...A METAL WATER
PIPE IN AIR THAT IS 35 DEGREES WILL ATTAIN A TEMPERATURE OF 35
DEGREES...AS WILL THE WATER INSIDE. THE WIND MAY BE BLOWING AT 20 MPH
PRODUCING A WIND CHILL OF ZERO DEGREES...BUT THE PIPE AND THE WATER
WILL REMAIN AT 35 DEGREES.

HYPOTHERMIA...
HYPOTHERMIA IS JUST A COMPLICATED WORD FOR LOWER-THAN-NORMAL BODY
TEMPERATURE. HYPOTHERMIA CAN BE BROUGHT ON IN MANY WAYS INCLUDING
EXPOSURE TO PERIODS OF BITTERLY COLD WEATHER OR IMMERSION IN COLD
LAKE OR RIVER WATER. REMEMBER THAT HYPOTHERMIA IS THE ACTUAL
LOWERING OF BODY TEMPERATURE. HYPOTHERMIA IS THE MOST DANGEROUS
AND LIFE-THREATENING RESULT OF EXPOSURE TO EXTREMELY COLD AIR.

SOME OF THE WARNING SIGNS ASSOCIATED WITH HYPOTHERMIA ARE
UNCONTROLLABLE SHIVERING...MEMORY LOSS...DISORIENTATION...
INCOHERENCE...SLURRED SPEECH...DROWSINESS AND APPARENT EXHAUSTION.
A GOOD WAY TO DETECT HYPOTHERMIA IS TO TAKE THE PERSONS TEMPERATURE.
IF IT IS BELOW 95 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT...SEEK MEDICAL CARE IMMEDIATELY.

IF MEDICAL CARE IS NOT AVAILABLE...BEGIN WARMING THE PERSON SLOWLY
BY WARMING THE BODY CORE FIRST WITH EITHER YOUR OWN BODY HEAT OR
WARM DRY CLOTHES AND BLANKETS. DO NOT WARM THE EXTREMITIES SUCH AS
ARMS AND LEGS FIRST AS THIS COULD PUSH THE COLD BLOOD TOWARD THE
HEART AND CAN LEAD TO HEART FAILURE.

ALL THESE COLD WEATHER THREATS CAN BE DIMINISHED BY WEARING THE
PROPER CLOTHING WHEN PLANNING TO BE OUT IN THE COLD WEATHER FOR
AN EXTENDED TIME.

WEAR SEVERAL LAYERS OF LOOSE-FITTING...LIGHT WEIGHT...WARM CLOTHING.
IF YOU BECOME TOO WARM...LAYERS CAN BE REMOVED TO AVOID HEAT
BUILD-UP AND PERSPIRATION. OUTER GARMENTS SHOULD BE TIGHTLY WOVEN...
WATER REPELLENT AND HOODED. TRY TO KEEP YOUR MOUTH COVERED TO PROTECT
YOUR LUNGS...AND KEEP YOUR HANDS IN MITTENS...NOT GLOVES...TO PROTECT
YOUR FINGERS. OVERALL...THE BEST RULE IS TO TRY TO STAY DRY.

FINALLY...BE SURE TO CHECK ON THE ELDERLY. HIGH HEATING COSTS COULD
CAUSE SOME OLDER PEOPLE TO SET THE THERMOSTAT TOO LOW...LEADING TO
HYPOTHERMIA. REMEMBER...ELDERLY PEOPLE OFTEN HAVE MORE DIFFICULTY
WITH THEIR SENSE OF WARM AND COLD.

&&

PLEASE VISIT OUR WEB SITE AT   WWW.SRH.NOAA.GOV/LZK


$$

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